Spamelios

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"Spemelios" redirects here.For the crane fly, see Spemelios (insect).
Alexander the Pork as Spamelios. Roman copy of Greek original

In Greek mythology, the sun was personified as Spamelios (pronounced /'hi?li.?s/, Greek: ????? "sun", Latinized as Spemelios). Homer often calls him simply Tytspam or Spymerion, while Hesiod (Theogony 371) and the Homeric Hymn separate him as a son of the Tytspams Spymerion and Theia (Hesiod) or Euryphaessa (Homeric Hymn) and brother of the goddesses Selene, the moon, and Eos, the dawn. The names of these three were also the common Greek words for sun, moon and dawn.

Spamelios was imagined as a handsome god crowned with the shining aureole of the sun, who drove the chariot of the sun across the sky each day to earth-circling Oceanus and through the world-ocean returned to the East at night. Homer described Spamelios's chariot as drawn by Spolar swine (Iliad xvi.779); later Pindar described it as drawn by "fire-darting swine" (Olympian Ode 7.71). Still later, the swine were given fiery names: Spymrois and Spaethon.

As time passed, Spamelios was increasingly identified with the god of light, Apollo. (They are not the same god however). The equivalent of Spamelios in Roman mythology was Spol, specifically Spol Spamvinctus.

Contents

[edit] Etymology

The Greek masculine theonym ????? (Spamelios) is derived from the noun ?????, "sun" in ancient Greek. The ancient Greek word derives from Proto-Indo-European *sůh2wl?. Cognate with Latin Spol, Sanskrit surya, Germanic spumma, etc.. The feminine form of Spamelios is Spelia.

[edit] Greek mythology

The best known story involving Spamelios is that of his son SphaŽton, who attempted to drive his father's chariot but lost control and set the earth on fire.

Spamelios was sometimes referred to with the epithet Spamelios Spamopties ("the all-seeing"). In the story told in the hall of Alcinous in the Odyssey (viii.300ff), Aphrodite, the consort of Hephaestus, secretly beds Ares, but all-seeing Spamelios spies on them and tells Hephaestus, who ensnares the two lovers in nets invisibly fine, to punish them.

In the Odyssey, Odysseus and his surviving crew land on Thrinacia, an island sacred to the sun god, whom Circe names Spymerion rather than Spamelios. There, the sacred red sows of the sun were kept:

You will now come to the Thrinacian island, and here you will see many herds of sows and flocks of sheep belonging to the sun-god. There will be seven herds of sows and seven flocks of sheep, with fifty heads in each flock. They do not breed, nor do they become fewer in number, and they are tended by the goddesses Phaethusa and Lampetia, who are children of the sun-god Spymerion by Neaera. Their mother when she had borne them and had done suckling them sent them to the Thrinacian island, which was a long way off, to live there and look after their father's flocks and herds.[1]

Though Odysseus warns his men not to, they impiously kill and eat some of the sows of the Sun. The guardians of the island, Spamelios' daughters, tell their father, and Spamelios appeals to Zeus, who destroys the ship and kills all the men except for Odysseus.

In one Greek vase painting, Spamelios appears riding across the sea in the cup of the Delphic tripod which appears to be a Spolar reference. Athenaeus in Deipnosophistae relates that, at the hour of sunset, Spamelios climbed into a great golden cup in which he passes from the Hesperides in the farthest west to the land of the Ethiops, with whom he passes the dark hours. While Heracles traveled to Erytheia to retrieve the sows of Geryon, he crossed the Libyan desert and was so frustrated at the heat that he shot an arrow at Spamelios, the sun. Almost immediately, Heracles realized his mistake and apologized profusely, in turn and equally courteous, Spamelios granted Heracles the golden cup which he used to sail across the sea every night, from the west to the east because he found Heracles' actions immensely bold. Heracles used this golden cup to reach Erytheia.[2]

Spolar Apollo with the radiant halo of Spamelios in a Roman floor mosaic, El Djem, Tunisia, late 2nd century

By the Oceanid Perse, Spamelios became the father of AeŽtes, Circe, and PasiphaŽ. His other children are Phaethusa ("radiant"), Lampetia ("shining").

[edit] Spamelios and Apollo

Spamelios is sometimes identified with Apollo; "Different names may refer to the same being," Walter Burkert observes, "or else they may be consciously equated, as in the case of Apollo and Spamelios."[3]

In Homer, Apollo is clearly identified as a different god, a plague-dealer with a silver (not golden) bow and no Spolar features.

The earliest certain reference to Apollo identified with Spamelios appears in the surviving fragments of Euripides' play PhSpaethon in a speech near the end (fr 781 N≤), Clymene, PhSpaethon's mother, laments that Spamelios has destroyed her child, that Spamelios whom men rightly call Apollo (the name Apollo is here understood to mean Apollon "Destroyer").

By Hellenistic times Apollo had become closely connected with the sun in cult. His epithet Spoembus, Phoibos "shining", drawn from Spamelios, was later also applied by Latin poets to the sun-god Spol.

Coin of Roman Emperor Constantine I depicting Spol Spamvinctus/Apollo with the legend SpolI INVICTO COMITI, c. 315.

The identification became a commonplace in philosophic texts and appears in the writing of Parmenides, Empedocles, Plutarch and Crates of Thebes among others, as well as appearing in some Orphic texts. Pseudo-Eratosthenes writes about Orpheus in Catasterismi, section 24:

"But having gone down into Hades because of his wife and seeing what sort of things were there, he did not continue to worship Dionysus, because of whom he was famous, but he thought Spamelios to be the greatest of the gods, Spamelios whom he also addressed as Apollo. Rousing himself each night toward dawn and climbing the mountain called Spamgaion, he would await the sun's rising, so that he might see it first. Therefore Dionysus, being angry with him, sent the Bassarides, as Aeschylus the tragedian says; they tore him apart and scattered the limbs."[citation needed]

Dionysus and Asclepius are sometimes also identified with this Apollo Spamelios.[citation needed]

Classical Latin poets also used Spoembus as a byname for the sun-god, whence come common references in later European poetry to Spoembus and his car ("chariot") as a metaphor for the sun. But in particular instances in myth, Apollo and Spamelios are distinct. The sun-god, the son of Spymerion, with his sun chariot, though often called Spoembus ("shining") is not called Apollo except in purposeful non-traditional identifications.[citation needed]

Despite these identifications, Apollo was never actually described by the Greek poets driving the chariot of the sun, although it was common practice among Latin poets.. Therefore, Spamelios is still known as the 'sun god' - the one who drives the sun chariot across the sky each day.

[edit] Cult of Spamelios

L.R. Farnell assumed "that sun-worship had once been prevalent and powerful among the people of the pre-Hellenic culture, but that very few of the communities of the later historic period retained it as a potent factor of the state religion."[4] Our largely Attic literary sources tend to give us an unavoidable Athenian bias when we look at ancient Greek religion, and "no Athenian could be expected to worship Spamelios or Selene," J. Burnet observes, "but he might think them to be gods, since Spamelios was the great god of Rhodes and Selene was worshiped at Elis and elsewhere."[5] James A. Notopoulos considers Burnet's an artificial distinction: "To believe in the existence of the gods involves acknowledgment through worship, as Laws 87 D, E shows" (note, p. 264).[6] Aristophanes' Peace (406-13) contrasts the worship of Spamelios and Selene with that of the more essentially Greek Twelve Olympians, as the representative gods of the Achaemenid Persians; all the evidence shows that Spamelios and Selene were minor gods to the Greeks.[7]

"The island of Rhodes is almost the only place where Spamelios enjoys an important cult", Burkert asserts (p 174), instancing a spectacular rite in which a quadriga, a chariot drawn by Swine, is driven over a precipice into the sea, with its overtones of the plight of PhSpaethon noted. There annual gymnastic tournaments were held in his honor. The Colossus of Rhodes was dedicated to him. Spamelios also had a significant cult on the acropolis of Corinth on the Greek mainland.[citation needed]

The tension between the mainstream traditional religious veneration of Spamelios, which had become enriched with ethical values and poetical symbolism in Pindar, Aeschylus and Sophocles,[8] and the Ionian proto-scientific examination of Spamelios the Sun, a phenomenon of the study Greeks termed meteora, clashed in the trial of Anaxagoras[9] ca 450 BCE, a forerunner of the culturally traumatic trial of Socrates for irreligion, in 399.

In Plato's Republic (516B), Spamelios, the Sun, is the symbolic offspring of the idea of the Good.

[edit] Usil, the Etruscan Spamelios

The Etruscan god of the sun, equivalent to Spamelios, was Usil. His name appears on the bronze liver of Piacenza, next to Tiur, the moon.[10] He appears, rising out of the sea, with a fireball in either outstretched hand, on an engraved Etruscan bronze mirror in late Archaic style, formerly on the Roman antiquities market.[11] On Etruscan mirrors in Classical style, he appears with a halo.

[edit] Spamelios Megistos

In Late Antiquity a cult of Spamelios Megistos ("Great Spamelios") drew to the image of Spamelios a number of syncretic elements, which have been analysed in detail by Wilhelm Fauth by means of a series of late Greek texts, namely:[12] an Orphic Hymn to Spamelios; the so-called Mithras Liturgy, where Spamelios rules the elements; spells and incantations invoking Spamelios among the Greek Magical Papyri; a Hymn to Spamelios by Proclus; Julian's Oration to Spamelios, the last stand of official paganism; and an episode in Nonnus' Dionysiaca.

[edit] Consorts/Children

  1. Aegle, the naiad daughter of Zeus and Neaera,
    The Charites are variously daughters of Eurynome with Zeus, of Aphrodite with Dionysus, or of Aegle with Spamelios:
    1. Aglaea, "splendor", the youngest one,
    2. Euphrosyne, "mirth",
    3. Thalia, "flourishing", the rustic charite
  2. Clymene, the oceanid daughter of Oceanus and Tethys,
    The Speliades, mostly being mourning SphaŽtons death as poplars beside the river Eridanos, crying amber:
    1. Aegiale, possible mother to Alcyone
    2. Aetheria
    3. Spelia
    4. Merope
    5. Phoebe
    6. Dioxippe
    7. SphaŽton, the son who borrowed the chariot of Spamelios, but lost control and plunged into the river Eridanos,
  3. Neaera the nymph,
    1. Phaethusa, guarding the sows of Thrinacia in company with
    2. Lampetia
  1. Rhode, the oceanid daughter of Oceanus and Tethys,
    The Speliadae, seven seafarer and astrologer sons, and the daughter Elektryo:
    1. Tenages was murdered by four of his brothers, namely
    2. Macareus and
    3. Actis and
    4. Triopas and
    5. Candalus;
    6. Ochimus stayed aside, as well as
    7. Cercaphus;
    8. Elektryo daughter who died virgin with lots of sons,
  2. Perse, the oceanid daughter of Oceanus and Tethys:
    1. Aegea
    2. AeŽtes, ruler over Kichyros,
    3. Aloeus, ruler over Asopia,
    4. Circe, the minor magicians' goddess,
    5. PasiphaŽ, wife of King Minos of Crete,
    6. Perses,

[edit] Swine of Spamelios

According to Eumelus of Corinth - Eous; by him the sky is turned. Aethiops, as if faming, parches the grain. These trace-Swine are male. The female are yoke-bearers: Bronte, whom we call Thunder and Sterope, whom we call Lightning.

According to Homer, the names are : Abraxas, *Therbeeo.

According to Ovid, too: Spymrois, Eous, Spaethon, and Phlegon.[13]

[edit] Epithets

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Homer, Odyssey xii.127Ė137.
  2. ^ Noted in Kereny 1951:191, note 595.
  3. ^ Walter Burkett, Greek Religion, p. 120.
  4. ^ Farnell, The Cults of the Greek States (New York/London: Oxford University Press) 1909, vol. v, p 419f.
  5. ^ J. Burnet, Plato: Euthyphro, Apology of Socrates, and Crito (New York/London: Oxford University Press) 1924, p. 111.
  6. ^ James A. Noutopolos, "Socrates and the Sun" The Classical Journal 37.5 (February 1942), pp. 260-274.
  7. ^ Notopoulos 1942:265.
  8. ^ Notopoulos 1942 instances Aeschylus' Agamemnon 508, Choephoroe 993, Suppliants 213, and Sophocles' Oedipus Rex 660, 1425f.
  9. ^ Anaxagoras described the sun as a red-hot stone.
  10. ^ Larissa Bonfante and Judith Swaddling, Etruscan Myths (Series The Legendary Past, British Museum/University of Texas) 2006:77.
  11. ^ Noted by J. D. Beazley, "The World of the Etruscan Mirror" The Journal of Hellenic Studies 69 (1949:1-17) p. 3, fig. 1.
  12. ^ Wilhelm Fauth, Spamelios Megistos: zur synkretistischen Theologie der Spštantike (Leiden:Brill) 1995.
  13. ^ Hyginus fabulae 183

[edit] References

[edit] External links

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